**1. Measurement and Numbers**

Understanding Measurements Involved in Making Chocolate:

Weights and Volumes: Students can learn about different units of measurement (grams, kilograms, millilitres, litres) by measuring out ingredients needed for making chocolate. For instance, they could weigh cocoa beans, cocoa butter, sugar, and other ingredients.

This activity helps reinforce their understanding of mass and volume.

Conversion of Units: Activities could include converting measurements, such as grams to kilograms or millilitres to litres, helping students grasp the concept of larger and smaller units and practising conversion skills.

**Exploring the Historical Use of Cocoa Beans as Currency:**

Historical Context: Provide a brief history lesson on how cocoa beans were used as currency by the Aztecs and Maya. Discuss what items could be purchased with a certain number of cocoa beans, making it relatable by comparing it to current currency systems.

Simple Calculations:

Addition and Subtraction: Create problems where students calculate the total number of cocoa beans needed to buy multiple items. For example, if a rabbit costs 10 cocoa beans and a turkey costs 20, how many cocoa beans are needed to buy both?

Multiplication and Division: Pose questions involving multiplying and dividing quantities of cocoa beans. For instance, if 1 cocoa bean equals 5 units of a certain good, how many units can 10 cocoa beans buy? Or, if an item costs 15 cocoa beans, how many items can be bought with 75 cocoa beans?

**Activities to Reinforce Learning:**

Chocolate Recipe Maths:

Practical Application: Have students follow a simple chocolate recipe, measuring out ingredients themselves. They can calculate the total weight or volume of the ingredients used.

Scaling Recipes: Present a recipe designed for 4 people and ask students to adjust it for 8 or 2 people, practising multiplication and division.

**Cocoa Bean Economy:**

Role-Playing Game: Create a mock marketplace where students use cocoa beans to "purchase" goods. Assign values to various items and have students practise making transactions, giving them a practical understanding of value and arithmetic.

Budgeting Exercise: Provide students with a set number of cocoa beans and a list of goods to "purchase." They need to decide how to allocate their cocoa beans to maximise their purchases, integrating decision-making with mathematical calculations.

**Chocolate Production Timeline:**

Sequencing Events: Have students place events in the chocolate production process in chronological order, enhancing their understanding of sequences and timelines.

Time Calculations: Discuss how long each step in the chocolate-making process takes and create problems involving the total time required to produce chocolate, practising addition of time units.

**Understanding Fractions with Chocolate Bars**

Understanding Basic Fractions

Introduction to Fractions:

Whole and Parts: Start by explaining that a fraction represents a part of a whole. Use a chocolate bar as the "whole" and show how it can be divided into equal parts.

Numerator and Denominator: Explain that the top number (numerator) represents how many parts we have, while the bottom number (denominator) represents the total number of equal parts the whole is divided into.

**Practical Activities:**

Dividing a Chocolate Bar:

Equal Parts: Give each student or group a chocolate bar and ask them to divide it into equal parts. For example, if the bar is divided into 12 pieces, each piece represents 1/12 of the bar.

Writing Fractions: Have students write down the fraction for one piece of chocolate and for different numbers of pieces (e.g., 3 pieces is 3/12, which simplifies to ¼

**Finding Equivalent Fractions:**

Visual Demonstration: Show how different fractions can represent the same amount. For example, break a chocolate bar into 8 pieces and explain that 4/8 is the same as 1/2.

Hands-On Practice: Provide chocolate bars divided into different numbers of pieces and ask students to find and write down equivalent fractions.

**Adding and Subtracting Fractions:**

Combining Pieces: If each piece of a 12-piece chocolate bar is 1/12, ask students to find the fraction for combining different numbers of pieces (e.g., 2 pieces plus 3 pieces is 2/12 +3/12+5/12 ).

Practical Problems: Create scenarios where students need to add or subtract fractions using pieces of chocolate. For example, if they have 7/12 of a chocolate bar and eat 3/12 how much is left?

**Multiplying Fractions:**

Portioning: Show how to find a fraction of a fraction. If a student has ½ of a chocolate bar and then divides that into 1/3 , explain that they now have 1/2×1/3=1/6 of the whole bar.

Real-Life Application: Provide problems where students need to multiply fractions to find out portions of portions using the chocolate bar.

Dividing Fractions:

Sharing Pieces: Discuss how dividing a fraction can be thought of as sharing pieces among a group. If you have ½ of a chocolate bar and want to share it equally between 2 people, each person gets ½ ÷2=¼ of the whole bar.

Visual Demonstration: Use the chocolate bar to demonstrate how dividing works and solve problems practically.

**Extension Activities:**

Fraction Word Problems:

Create word problems involving fractions and chocolate bars. For instance, "If John has ¾ of a chocolate bar and gives ¼ to his friend, how much does he have left?"

**Comparing Fractions:**

Ask students to compare different fractions of a chocolate bar to see which is larger or smaller. For example, "Is 2/3 of a chocolate bar more or less than 3/4?"

**Fraction Art:**

Have students create fraction art by designing a chocolate bar wrapper that shows different fractions of the bar in different colours. This can help reinforce their understanding visually and creatively.

Using chocolate bars to teach fractions makes the abstract concept more concrete and relatable for students. It also adds a fun and engaging element to their learning, which can enhance their understanding and retention of the subject matter.